Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Ksp Chemistry Complete Guide to the Solubility Constant

Ksp Chemistry Complete Guide to the Solubility Constant SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Are you learning chemistry but don’t quite understand the solubility product constant or want to learn more about it? Not sure how to calculate molar solubility from $K_s_p$? The solubility constant, or $K_s_p$, is an important part of chemistry, particularly when you’re working with solubility equations or analyzing the solubility of different solutes. When you have a solid grasp of $K_s_p$, those questions become much easier to answer! In this $K_s_p$ chemistry guide, we’ll explain the $K_s_p$ chemistry definition, how to solve for it (with examples), which factors affect it, and why it’s important. At the bottom of this guide, we also have a table with the $K_s_p$ values for a long list of substances to make it easy for you to find solubility constant values. What Is $K_s_p$? $K_s_p$ is known as the solubility constant or solubility product. It’s the equilibrium constant used for equations when a solid substance is dissolving in a liquid/aqueous solution. As a reminder, a solute (what is being dissolved) is considered soluble if more than 1 gram of it can be completely dissolved in 100 ml of water. $K_s_p$ is used for solutes that are only slightly soluble and don’t completely dissolve in solution. (A solute is insoluble if nothing or nearly nothing of it dissolves in solution.) $K_s_p$ represents how much of the solute will dissolve in solution. The value of $K_s_p$ varies depending on the solute. The more soluble a substance is, the higher its $K_s_p$ chemistry value. And what are the $K_s_p$ units? Actually, it doesn’t have a unit! The $K_s_p$ value does not have any units because the molar concentrations of the reactants and products are different for each equation. This would mean the $K_s_p$ unit would be different for every problem and would be difficult to solve, so in order to make it simpler, chemists generally drop $K_s_p$ units altogether. How nice of them! How Do You Calculate $K_s_p$? In this section, we explain how to write out $K_s_p$ chemistry expressions and how to solve for the value of $K_s_p$. For most chemistry classes, you’ll rarely need to solve for the value of $K_s_p$; most of the time you’ll be writing out the expressions or using $K_s_p$ values to solve for solubility (which we explain how to do in the â€Å"Why Is $K_s_p$ Important† section). Writing $K_s_p$ Expressions Below is the solubility product equation which is followed by four $K_s_p$ chemistry problems so you can see how to write out $K_s_p$ expressions. For the reaction $A_aB_b$(s) â‡Å' $aA^b^{+}$(aq) + $bB^a^{-}$ (aq) The solubility expression is $K_s_p$= $[A^b^{+}]^a$ $[B^a^{-}]^b$ The first equation is known as a dissociation equation, and the second is the balanced $K_s_p$ expression. For these equations: A and B represent different ions and solids. In these equations, they are also referred to as "products". a and b represent coefficients used to balance the equation (aq) and (s) indicate which state the product is in (aqueous or solid, respectively) Brackets stand for molar concentration. So [AgCl] represents the molar concentration of AgCl. In order to write $K_s_p$ expressions correctly, you need to have a good knowledge of chemical names, polyatomic ions, and the charges associated with each ion. Also, the key thing to be aware of with these equations is that each concentration (represented by square brackets) is raised to the power of its coefficient in the balanced $K_s_p$ expression. Let’s look at a few examples. Example 1 $PbBr_2$(s) â‡Å' $Pb^2^{+}$ (aq) + $2Br^{ ¯}$ (aq) $K_s_p$= $[Pb^2^{+}]$ $[Br ¯]^2$ In this problem, don’t forget to square the Br in the $K_s_p$ equation. You do this because of the coefficient â€Å"2† in the dissociation equation. Example 2 CuS(s) â‡Å' $Cu^{+}$ (aq) + S ¯(aq) $K_s_p$= [$Cu^{+}$] [S ¯] Example 3 $Ag_2CrO_4$ (s) â‡Å' 2$Ag^{+}$ (aq) + $CrO_4^2^{-}$ (aq) $K_s_p$= $[Ag^{+}]^2$ [$CrO_4^2$] Example 4 $Cu_3$ $(PO_4)^2$ (s) â‡Å' $3Cu^2^{+}$ (aq) + $2PO_4^3^{ ¯}$ (aq) $K_s_p$ = $[Cu^2^{+}]^3$ [$PO_4^3^ ¯$]$^2$ Solving for $K_s_p$ With Solubility In order to calculate a value for $K_s_p$, you need to have molar solubility values or be able to find them. Question: Determine the $K_s_p$ of AgBr (silver bromide), given that its molar solubility is 5.71 x $10^{ ¯}^7$ moles per liter. First, we need to write out the two equations. AgBr(s) â‡Å' $Ag^{+}$ (aq) + $Br^{ ¯}$ (aq) $K_s_p$ = [$Ag^{+}$] [$Br^{ ¯}$] Now, since in this problem we're solving for an actual value of $K_s_p$, we plug in the solubility values we were given: $K_s_p$ = (5.71 x $10^{ ¯}^7$) (5.71 x $10^{ ¯}^7$) = 3.26 x $10^{ ¯}^13$ The value of $K_s_p$ is 3.26 x $10^{ ¯}^13$ What Factors Affect $K_s_p$? In this section, we discuss the main factors that affect the value of the solubility constant. Temperature Most solutes become more soluble in a liquid as the temperature is increased. If you’d like proof, see how well instant coffee mixes in a cup of cold water compared to a cup of hot water. Temperature affects the solubility of both solids and gases but hasn’t been found to have a defined impact on the solubility of liquids. Pressure Pressure can also affect solubility, but only for gases that are in liquids. Henry's law states that the solubility of a gas is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas. Henry’s law is written as p=kc, where p is the partial pressure of the gas above the liquid k is Henry’s law constant c is the concentration of gas in the liquid Henry’s law shows that, as partial pressure decreases, the concentration of gas in the liquid also decreases, which in turn decreases solubility. So less pressure results in less solubility, and more pressure results in more solubility. You can see Henry’s law in action if you open up a can of soda. When the can is closed, the gas is under more pressure, and there are lots of bubbles because a lot of the gas is dissolved. When you open the can, the pressure decreases, and, if you leave the soda sitting out long enough, the bubbles will eventually disappear because solubility has decreased and they are no longer dissolved in the liquid (they’ve bubbled out of the drink). Molecular Size Generally, solutes with smaller molecules are more soluble than ones with molecules particles. It’s easier for the solvent to surround smaller molecules, so those molecules can be dissolved faster than larger molecules. Why Is $K_s_p$ Important? Why does the solubility constant matter? Below are three key times you’ll need to use $K_s_p$ chemistry. To Find the Solubility of Solutes Wondering how to calculate molar solubility from $K_s_p$? Knowing the value of $K_s_p$ allows you to find the solubility of different solutes. Here’s an example: The $K_s_p$ value of $Ag_2SO_4$ ,silver sulfate, is 1.4Ãâ€"$10^{–}^5$. Determine the molar solubility. First, we need to write out the dissociation equation: $K_s_p$=$ [Ag^{+}]^2$ $[SO_4^2]$ Next, we plug in the $K_s_p$ value to create an algebraic expression. 1.4Ãâ€"$10^{–}^5$= $(2x)^2$ $(x)$ 1.4Ãâ€"$10^{–}^5$= $4x^3$ $x$=[$SO_4^2$]=1.5x$10^{-}^2$ M $2x$= [$Ag^{+}$]=3.0x$10^{-}^2$ M To Predict If a Precipitate Will Form in Reactions When we know the $K_s_p$ value of a solute, we can figure out if a precipitate will occur if a solution of its ions is mixed. Below are the two rules that determine the formation of a precipitate. Ionic product $K_s_p$ then precipitation will occur Ionic product $K_s_p$ then precipitation will not occur To Understand the Common Ion Effect $K_s_p$ also is an important part of the common ion effect. The common ion effect states that when two solutions that share a common ion are mixed, the solute with the smaller $K_s_p$ value will precipitate first. For example, say BiOCl and CuCl are added to a solution. Both contain $Cl^{-}$ ions. BiOCl’s $K_s_p$ value is 1.8Ãâ€"$10^{–}^31$ and CuCl’s $K_s_p$ value is 1.2Ãâ€"$10^{–}^6$. BiOCl has the smaller $K_s_p$ value, so it will precipitate before CuCl. Solubility Product Constant Table Below is a chart showing the $K_s_p$ values for many common substances. The $K_s_p$ values are for when the substances are around 25 degrees Celsius, which is standard. Because the $K_s_p$ values are so small, there may be minor differences in their values depending on which source you use. The data in this chart comes from the University of Rhode Island’s Department of Chemistry. Substance Formula $K_s_p$ Value Aluminum hydroxide $Al(OH)_3$ 1.3Ãâ€"$10^{–}^33$ Aluminum phosphate $AlPO_4$ 6.3Ãâ€"$10^{–}^19$ Barium carbonate $BaCO_3$ 5.1Ãâ€"$10^{–}^9$ Barium chromate $BaCrO_4$ 1.2Ãâ€"$10^{–}^10$ Barium fluoride $BaF_2$ 1.0Ãâ€"$10^{–}^6$ Barium hydroxide $Ba(OH)_2$ 5Ãâ€"$10^{–}^3$ Barium sulfate $BaSO_4$ 1.1Ãâ€"$10^{–}^10$ Barium sulfite $BaSO_3$ 8Ãâ€"$10^{–}^7$ Barium thiosulfate $BaS_2O_3$ 1.6Ãâ€"$10^{–}^6$ Bismuthyl chloride $BiOCl$ 1.8Ãâ€"$10^{–}^31$ Bismuthyl hydroxide $BiOOH$ 4Ãâ€"$10^{–}^10$ Cadmium carbonate $CdCO_3$ 5.2Ãâ€"$10^{–}^12$ Cadmium hydroxide $Cd(OH)_2$ 2.5Ãâ€"$10^{–}^14$ Cadmium oxalate $CdC_2O_4$ 1.5Ãâ€"$10^{–}^8$ Cadmium sulfide $CdS$ 8Ãâ€"$10^{–}^28$ Calcium carbonate $CaCO_3$ 2.8Ãâ€"$10^{–}^9$ Calcium chromate $CaCrO_4$ 7.1Ãâ€"$10^{–}^4$ Calcium fluoride $CaF_2$ 5.3Ãâ€"$10^{–}^9$ Calcium hydrogen phosphate $CaHPO_4$ 1Ãâ€"$10^{–}^7$ Calcium hydroxide $Ca(OH)_2$ 5.5Ãâ€"$10^{–}^6$ Calcium oxalate $CaC_2O_4$ 2.7Ãâ€"$10^{–}^9$ Calcium phosphate $Ca_3(PO_4)_2$ 2.0Ãâ€"$10^{–}^29$ Calcium sulfate $CaSO_4$ 9.1Ãâ€"$10^{–}^6$ Calcium sulfite $CaSO_3$ 6.8Ãâ€"$10^{–}^8$ Chromium (II) hydroxide $Cr(OH)_2$ 2Ãâ€"$10^{–}^16$ Chromium (III) hydroxide $Cr(OH)_3$ 6.3Ãâ€"$10^{–}^31$ Cobalt (II) carbonate $CoCO_3$ 1.4Ãâ€"$10^{–}^13$ Cobalt (II) hydroxide $Co(OH)_2$ 1.6Ãâ€"$10^{–}^15$ Cobalt (III) hydroxide $Co(OH)_3$ 1.6Ãâ€"$10^{–}^44$ Cobalt (II) sulfide $CoS$ 4Ãâ€"$10^{–}^21$ Copper (I) chloride $CuCl$ 1.2Ãâ€"$10^{–}^6$ Copper (I) cyanide $CuCN$ 3.2Ãâ€"$10^{–}^20$ Copper (I) iodide $CuI$ 1.1Ãâ€"$10^{–}^12$ Copper (II) arsenate $Cu_3(AsO_4)_2$ 7.6Ãâ€"$10^{–}^36$ Copper (II) carbonate $CuCO_3$ 1.4Ãâ€"$10^{–}^10$ Copper (II) chromate $CuCrO_4$ 3.6Ãâ€"$10^{–}^6$ Copper (II) ferrocyanide $Cu[Fe(CN)_6]$ 1.3Ãâ€"$10^{–}^16$ Copper (II) hydroxide $Cu(OH)_2$ 2.2Ãâ€"$10^{–}^20$ Copper (II) sulfide $CuS$ 6Ãâ€"$10^{–}^37$ Iron (II) carbonate $FeCO_3$ 3.2Ãâ€"$10^{–}^11$ Iron (II) hydroxide $Fe(OH)_2$ 8.0$10^{–}^16$ Iron (II) sulfide $FeS$ 6Ãâ€"$10^{–}^19$ Iron (III) arsenate $FeAsO_4$ 5.7Ãâ€"$10^{–}^21$ Iron (III) ferrocyanide $Fe_4[Fe(CN)_6]_3$ 3.3Ãâ€"$10^{–}^41$ Iron (III) hydroxide $Fe(OH)_3$ 4Ãâ€"$10^{–}^38$ Iron (III) phosphate $FePO_4$ 1.3Ãâ€"$10^{–}^22$ Lead (II) arsenate $Pb_3(AsO_4)_2$ 4Ãâ€"$10^{–}^6$ Lead (II) azide $Pb(N_3)_2$ 2.5Ãâ€"$10^{–}^9$ Lead (II) bromide $PbBr_2$ 4.0Ãâ€"$10^{–}^5$ Lead (II) carbonate $PbCO_3$ 7.4Ãâ€"$10^{–}^14$ Lead (II) chloride $PbCl_2$ 1.6Ãâ€"$10^{–}^5$ Lead (II) chromate $PbCrO_4$ 2.8Ãâ€"$10^{–}^13$ Lead (II) fluoride $PbF_2$ 2.7Ãâ€"$10^{–}^8$ Lead (II) hydroxide $Pb(OH)_2$ 1.2Ãâ€"$10^{–}^15$ Lead (II) iodide $PbI_2$ 7.1Ãâ€"$10^{–}^9$ Lead (II) sulfate $PbSO_4$ 1.6Ãâ€"$10^{–}^8$ Lead (II) sulfide $PbS$ 3Ãâ€"$10^{–}^28$ Lithium carbonate $Li_2CO_3$ 2.5Ãâ€"$10^{–}^2$ Lithium fluoride $LiF$ 3.8Ãâ€"$10^{–}^3$ Lithium phosphate $Li_3PO_4$ 3.2Ãâ€"$10^{–}^9$ Magnesium ammonium phosphate $MgNH_4PO_4$ 2.5Ãâ€"$10^{–}^13$ Magnesium arsenate $Mg_3(AsO_4)_2$ 2Ãâ€"$10^{–}^20$ Magnesium carbonate $MgCO_3$ 3.5Ãâ€"$10^{–}^8$ Magnesium fluoride $MgF_2$ 3.7Ãâ€"$10^{–}^8$ Magnesium hydroxide $Mg(OH)_2$ 1.8Ãâ€"$10^{–}^11$ Magnesium oxalate $MgC_2O_4$ 8.5Ãâ€"$10^{–}^5$ Magnesium phosphate $Mg_3(PO_4)_2$ 1Ãâ€"$10^{–}^25$ Manganese (II) carbonate $MnCO_3$ 1.8Ãâ€"$10^{–}^11$ Manganese (II) hydroxide $Mn(OH)_2$ 1.9Ãâ€"$10^{–}^13$ Manganese (II) sulfide $MnS$ 3Ãâ€"$10^{–}^14$ Mercury (I) bromide $Hg_2Br_2$ 5.6Ãâ€"$10^{–}^23$ Mercury (I) chloride $Hg_2Cl_2$ 1.3Ãâ€"$10^{–}^18$ Mercury (I) iodide $Hg_2I_2$ 4.5Ãâ€"$10^{–}^29$ Mercury (II) sulfide $HgS$ 2Ãâ€"$10^{–}^53$ Nickel (II) carbonate $NiCO_3$ 6.6Ãâ€"$10^{–}^9$ Nickel (II) hydroxide $Ni(OH)_2$ 2.0Ãâ€"$10^{–}^15$ Nickel (II) sulfide $NiS$ 3Ãâ€"$10^{–}^19$ Scandium fluoride $ScF_3$ 4.2Ãâ€"$10^{–}^18$ Scandium hydroxide $Sc(OH)_3$ 8.0Ãâ€"$10^{–}^31$ Silver acetate $Ag_2CH_3O_2$ 2.0Ãâ€"$10^{–}^3$ Silver arsenate $Ag_3AsO_4$ 1.0Ãâ€"$10^{–}^22$ Silver azide $AgN_3$ 2.8Ãâ€"$10^{–}^9$ Silver bromide $AgBr$ 5.0Ãâ€"$10^{–}^13$ Silver chloride $AgCl$ 1.8Ãâ€"$10^{–}^10$ Silver chromate $Ag_2CrO_4$ 1.1Ãâ€"$10^{–}^12$ Silver cyanide $AgCN$ 1.2Ãâ€"$10^{–}^16$ Silver iodate $AgIO_3$ 3.0Ãâ€"$10^{–}^8$ Silver iodide $AgI$ 8.5Ãâ€"$10^{–}^17$ Silver nitrite $AgNO_2$ 6.0Ãâ€"$10^{–}^4$ Silver sulfate $Ag_2SO_4$ 1.4Ãâ€"$10^{–}^5$ Silver sulfide $Ag_2S$ 6Ãâ€"$10^{–}^51$ Silver sulfite $Ag_2SO_3$ 1.5Ãâ€"$10^{–}^14$ Silver thiocyanate $AgSCN$ 1.0Ãâ€"$10^{–}^12$ Strontium carbonate $SrCO_3$ 1.1Ãâ€"$10^{–}^10$ Strontium chromate $SrCrO_4$ 2.2Ãâ€"$10^{–}^5$ Strontium fluoride $SrF_2$ 2.5Ãâ€"$10^{–}^9$ Strontium sulfate $SrSO_4$ 3.2Ãâ€"$10^{–}^7$ Thallium (I) bromide $TlBr$ 3.4Ãâ€"$10^{–}^6$ Thallium (I) chloride $TlCl$ 1.7Ãâ€"$10^{–}^4$ Thallium (I) iodide $TlI$ 6.5Ãâ€"$10^{–}^8$ Thallium (III) hydroxide $Tl(OH)_3$ 6.3Ãâ€"$10^{–}^46$ Tin (II) hydroxide $Sn(OH)_2$ 1.4Ãâ€"$10^{–}^28$ Tin (II) sulfide $SnS$ 1Ãâ€"$10^{–}^26$ Zinc carbonate $ZnCO_3$ 1.4Ãâ€"$10^{–}^11$ Zinc hydroxide $Zn(OH)_2$ 1.2Ãâ€"$10^{–}^17$ Zinc oxalate $ZnC_2O_4$ 2.7Ãâ€"$10^{–}^8$ Zinc phosphate $Zn_3(PO_4)_2$ 9.0Ãâ€"$10^{–}^33$ Zinc sulfide $ZnS$ 2Ãâ€"$10^{–}^25$ Conclusion: $K_s_p$ Chemistry Guide What is $K_s_p$ in chemistry? The solubility product constant, or $K_s_p$, is an important aspect of chemistry when studying solubility of different solutes. $K_s_p$ represents how much of the solute will dissolve in solution, and the more soluble a substance is, the higher the chemistry $K_s_p$ value. To calculate the solubility product constant, you’ll first need to write out the dissociation equation and balanced $K_s_p$ expression, then plug in the molar concentrations, if you’re given them. The solubility constant can be affected by temperature, pressure, and molecular size, and it’s important for determining solubility, predicting if a precipitate will form, and understand the common ion effect.

Monday, March 2, 2020

Summary and Review of Proof, a Play from David Auburn

Summary and Review of Proof, a Play from David Auburn Proof  by David Auburn premiered on Broadway in October 2000. It received national attention, earning the Drama Desk Award, the Pulitzer Prize, and the Tony Award for Best Play. The play is intriguing with fascinating dialogue and two characters who are well-developed and an academic, mathematical theme. It does, however, have a few downfalls. Plot Overview of Proof Catherine, the twenty-something daughter of an esteemed mathematician, has just laid her father to rest. He died after suffering from a prolonged mental illness. Robert, her father, had once been a gifted, ground-breaking professor. But as he lost his sanity, he lost his ability to coherently work with numbers. The audience quickly learns: Catherine is brilliant in her own right, but she fears that she might possess the same mental illness which ultimately incapacitated her father.Her older sister wants to take her to New York where she can be cared for, in an institution if need be.Hal (a devoted student of Roberts) searches through the professors files hoping to discover something usable so that his mentors final years wont have been a complete waste. During the course of his research, Hal discovers a pad of paper filled with profound, cutting-edge calculations. He incorrectly assumes the work was Roberts. In truth, Catherine wrote the mathematic proof. No one believes her. So now she must provide proof that the proof belongs to her. (Note the double-entendre in the title.) What Works in Proof? Proof  works very well during the father-daughter scenes. Of course, there are only a couple of these since the father character, after all, is dead. When Catherine does converse with her father, these flashbacks reveal her often conflicting desires. We learn that Catherines academic goals are thwarted by her responsibilities to her ailing father. Her creative urges are offset for her propensity for lethargy. And she worries that her so-far undiscovered genius might be a tell-tale symptom of the same affliction to which her father succumbed. David Auburns writing is at its most heartfelt when father and daughter express their love (and sometimes despair) for math. There is a poetry to their theorems. In fact, even when Roberts logic has failed him, his equations exchange rationality for a unique form of poetry: Catherine (Reading from her fathers journal.)Let X equal the quantities of all quantities of X.Let X equal the cold.Its cold in December.The months of cold equal November through February. Another strong point of the play is Catherine herself. She is a strong female character: incredibly bright, but by no means prone to flaunting her intellect. She is by far the most well-rounded of the characters (in fact, with the exception of Robert, the other characters seem bland and flat by comparison). Proof  has been embraced by colleges and high school drama departments. And with a leading character like Catherine, it is easy to understand why. A Weak Central Conflict One of the major conflicts of the play is Catherines inability to convince Hal and her sister that she actually invented the proof in her fathers notebook. For a while, the audience ​is unsure as well. After all, Catherines sanity is in question. Also, she has yet to graduate from college. And, to add one more layer of suspicion, the math is written in her fathers handwriting. But Catherine has a lot of other things on her plate. Shes dealing with grief, sibling rivalry, romantic tension, and the slow sinking feeling of losing ones mind. She isnt terribly concerned about proving that the proof is hers. She is deeply annoyed that the people closest to her fail to believe her. For the most part, she doesnt spend much time trying to prove her case. In fact, she even tosses the notepad down, saying that Hal can publish it under his name. Ultimately, because she doesnt really care about the proof, we the audience dont care too much about it either, thereby diminishing the conflict. A Poorly Conceived Romantic Lead One more downside: Hal. This character is sometimes nerdy, sometimes romantic, sometimes charming. But for the most part, hes a dweeb. Hes the most skeptical about Catherines academic abilities, yet it seems that if he wanted, he could talk to her for about five minutes and discover her mathematical skills. But he never bothers until the plays resolution. Hal never states this, but it seems that his main contention against Catherines authorship of the proof boils down to sexism. Throughout the play, he seems on the verge of shouting: You couldnt have written this proof! Youre just a girl! How could you be good at math? Sadly, theres a half-hearted love story tacked on. Or maybe its a lust story. Its hard to say. During the second half of the play, Catherines sister discovers that Hal and Catherine have been sleeping together. Their sexual relationship seems very casual, but it does kick the level of betrayal up a notch when Hal continues to doubt Catherines genius.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Seminar in Criminology - Discussion 8 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Seminar in Criminology - Discussion 8 - Essay Example Morton’s defense team and thus his defense was at a disadvantage. If the judge had ensured that all evidence collected was also presented to the defense team the wrongful conviction might have been avoided. Although there can really never be enough compensation for the years Mr. Morton spent in prison after the wrongful conviction, some monetary compensation is necessary to show the mercy of the state. In my opinion, the state would have compensated Mr. Morton monetary wise for the years he spent in prison and educate his children to the highest levels. The monetary compensation by the state should have been double Mr. Morton’s earnings per year multiplied by the 25 years. The research conducted by Bedau and Radelet in Chapter 5 made recommendations that led to the decrease in wrongful convictions and that reforms in criminal prosecutions. The research has led to creation of policies and organizations to help in reducing wrongful convictions. Today, there are many non-profit organizations that research into such cases focusing on wrongful convictions (Thistlethwaite & Wooldredge, 2014). In my opinion these reforms by Bedau and Radelet have been very critical in improving the justice system in the United States since it has reduced the over reliance on DNA

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Industry Analysis Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Industry Analysis - Research Paper Example This paper will analyze the competitiveness of Apple Inc in the industry. Application software industry analysis Introduction Apple Inc was established in Cupertino, California back in April 1976. Apple manufactures the Mac OS X operating system, the iWork suite of productivity software and iTunes media browser. Some innovative products include the Final cut Studio that includes professional audio and film industry software. The company has earned a good reputation due to its philosophy of innovation, aesthetic product design and distinctive marketing efforts. In the year 2009, the global sales turnover was $ 42.91 billion (Hoovers 2012). Mac OS X, based on NeXTs OPENSTEP and BSD Unix was launched in 2001 after several years of research and development. Mac OS X combines reliability, security of Unix and ease of the user interface. In the same year, iPod digital audio player was introduced while the iTunes store that offers online music was introduced in 2003. More than 5 billion mus ic downloads had been sold by the year 2008 (Henry, 2008). Microsoft Corporation has its headquarters in Washington that develops licenses and manufacturers different computing products. Some of the product divisions include servers and tools, entertainment, windows and windows live division, and Microsoft business division. Microsoft has not only focused on its software division but also consumer electronics, digital distribution, video games, hardware and online advertising (Hoovers 2012). The mission of the company is to help businesses around the globe to realize their full potential (Ungson & Wong, 2007). Apple Inc has various strengths that make the company competitive in the application software industry. Apple has a considerable market share due to its reputation of innovation. Apple has a competitive pricing strategy and maintains the operating costs lower than Microsoft. Apple has consistently differentiated its products and like the communications and media products. Appl e has achieved customer loyalty due to high quality software than Microsoft software (Hoovers 2012). Unlike Microsoft, Apple Inc has a strong online presence which has enabled the company to attain market leadership in the online sales (Ungson & Wong, 2007). STEEP Analysis Steep analysis refers to the social, technological economic, environmental and political factors that determine the competitive capabilities of the businesses in a particular industry. These external factors influence the competitive strategies that firms in the industry must implement (Hill & Jones, 2009). Social environment The social environment is conducive for Apple Inc business. The world population growth rate is currently high where the youth comprise majority of the population. The level of literacy is high since most of the countries have compulsory education laws thus the demand for application software will remain high. Generally, the US citizens have positive attitudes towards work and use of software products to facilitate the efficiency of work. US citizens desire quality and innovative products thus the demand for Apple’s application software and other media products will remain high (Ungson & Wong, 2007). Technological environment The recent advances in computing and use of the internet to market application software will enhance the market share for Apple (Hoovers 2012). Apple utilizes modern technology in the design and manufacture of its products like the iPhone. Unlike Microsoft

Friday, January 24, 2020

Siberian Prison System :: Russian Russia History

Siberian Prison System PRISON SYSTEM IN SIBERIA My project is dedicated to description of the history of Siberia as a place to where send prisoners--from the days of Ivan the Terrible until today. I will tell about the reasons for choosing Siberia as place of exile, the system of prisons and conditions in Siberian prisons. Choosing Siberia as a Place of Exile As with other Western powers that gained colonies overseas, the acquisition of Siberia led to making it a place of exile. Criminal and political prisoners had been sent to Siberia for more than three centuries; millions of people, in total, were deported there. Due to its remoteness and severe weather conditions 'Russian Australia' was one huge prison, escape from where was almost impossible and very dangerous not only because of the chase, but because of the Siberian killing frosts, unimaginably long distances, bounty-hunting natives, deep forests and wild animals. Another reason for establishing punishment by exile was the desire of society to banish still cruel and barbarous criminal code of XVII century according to which criminals had been punished by amputation of their limbs, being bastionadoed, and being branded with hot iron. Exile was quick and easy method of getting them out of the way. The punishments, however, didn't become more human e. They just began to happen far away from where most of the people could see them. Before making Siberia place of exile criminals died from being tortured in Moscow; after they died from the hard, exhausting work, cold winters, and diseases in Siberia. Although originally applied as a corporal punishment, exile can be viewed as a means of population and developing the colony. Government needed people to work in Siberian mines and to build roads, and penal servitude began to replace long prison terms, while list of offences meriting exile steadily lengthened to include even vagrancy, fortune-telling, wife-beating, debts, accidentally starting a fire or drunkenness. In 1754 death penalty was abolished for some years and replaced with exile at hard labour. Convoy to Siberia Until the middle of the XIX century, most of the convicts had to walk to the place of their exile from their homes. Often the journey took years--the distances walked measured thousands of kilometres. They walked from etape (transit prison) to etape. Until the beginning of XVIII century there was almost no long-range planning and even supervision of exiles was extremely negligent. Convicts had to beg their way because there was almost no food provided for them.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

YakkaTech Ltd

Besides this, voluntary employee increased making Yachted having to hire new technical staff. Having all these employees caused the new employees to lower their productivity. Employees started to feel they were basically doing the same thing every single day. Others didn't care about consequences and some of them even started having issues from people in other departments. So basically the whole system was â€Å"crashed†. Another symptom was that they started giving the employees a higher salary and profit sharing plans, with the hope that this ill address this issue, but it didn't.Employee recommendations to their friends so they would join the company, became minimum. This showed the lack of interest that employees had over the company. To address all these symptoms that I explained they would have to take actions and make them quick. Yachted Ltd. Had to first address the rising complaints that the customers had towards the company. To solve this, they would have to apply mo re than one solution. Between the most important one of all, they would first have to start working on the old system that is applied in the company. As it was shown, bringing new employees might be the cause that is stopped working.That's why they should first change the system to make the departments have a better communication between each other and avoid the conflict (Having a lack of communication in a business is not convenient at all). Another problem that was pointed out, was the lack of interest and how employees didn't feel worried at all about the consequences. Within the new system that will be integrated they should be able to add something up that if you're not giving the right customer service or you're being less productive oh get fire or have a really serious consequence.With this solution we should add a feedback system that will be offered by any customers who gives a call. This feedback system would be added in a document that would have a different section per e mployee. By doing this, Yachted Ltd. Will be able to see who are the employees that put more effort into the company and at the same time see the ones that aren't doing so well. But the feedback system is something that should not be applied only to the customers. Employees should get surveys at least once every three months. When employees feel their opinion matter they will be more than happy to work for the company.They will be able to express any concerns or problems they are having in the company. Even though it didn't work to raise the salary and give a profit-sharing plan they should still stick to it, but the ones that end up in the top three of the system each month would receive a big bonus. By doing this you will be able to make employees to compete and making a better performance. If you give the same prizes and same salary to all the employees, it will lack of a competitive environment making the customer service worst and make the productivity per employee lower.To kee p up with this productivity, employees should take a training every four months to be able to overcome their challenges within the company. This will allow employees to be able to perform quickly, learn new skills and at the same time maintain them. At the moment all these issued are addressed, employees will start having a different perspective of the job. By having happy employees we will be able to fix the problem of having low employee referrals.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

First Amendment and Free Speech Essay - 1544 Words

This paper will examine the first amendment’s right to free speech based on three different Supreme Court cases and how there are varying examples of free speech. In the case of Snyder v. Phelps, Snyder sued Phelps, the Westboro Baptist Church, for intentional infliction of emotional distress, invasion of privacy by intrusion upon seclusion, and conspiracy because the church set-up protest outside of his military son’s funeral service (Chen et al., 2010). Another side of free speech involves a case which allow schools to restrict speech that is promoting illegal drug use. To examine this view this paper will look at the case of Morse v. Frederick. Lastly, this paper will look into the case of Texas v. Johnson. At the end of a†¦show more content†¦So the need for more drastic, shock and awe type actions from people desiring to be heard on any particular matter has been brought to the forefront. This is where the Bill of Rights has drastically come into pla y. At this point the Supreme Court has to protect the freedoms without stripping Americans of their rights entirely but it also has to protect Americans from those who wish to do harm to others under the protection of freedom of speech or expression. Not only does the First Amendment provide for freedom of speech but also freedom of expression which is as equally controversial. By examining the First Amendment and the protections and exclusions it has provided over the years through three highly controversial cases, it will allow the reader some insight into the difficulties surrounding the protection of free speech. The cases that are to be examined are Snyder v. Phelps, Morse v. Frederick and Texas v. Johnson. All of these cases present a different freedom of speech or expression issue that was brought to the Supreme Court and therefore, set a standard for future rulings regarding that particular issue. The case Morse v. Frederick was a very controversial case involving free dom of speech in the school and at school sponsored events. A High School in Juneau, Alaska consented to a school supervised release fromShow MoreRelatedFree Speech, First Amendment Rights And Terroristic Messages Essay1415 Words   |  6 Pagesthe article because for several reasons: it s importance in the context of this class, and the First Amendment rights of the defendants. Second, my final paper topic was â€Å"Free Speech, First Amendment Rights and Terroristic Messages†. I ve used the article in my paper and presentation, as well I ve particularly valued the case of Tarek Mehanna, 2012 while giving the examples for the Free speech rights and its protection in case of use and distribution of Terroristic Messages . FinallyRead MoreThe Importance Of The Bill Of Rights1331 Words   |  6 Pagesbecoming law. 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